Predicting Multiple Performance Metrics for Queries: Better Decisions Enabled by Machine Learning

TitlePredicting Multiple Performance Metrics for Queries: Better Decisions Enabled by Machine Learning
Publication TypeConference Proceedings
Year of Conference2009
AuthorsGanapathi, Archana, Harumi Kuno, Umeshwar Daval, Janet Wiener, Armando Fox, Michael Jordan, & David Patterson
Conference NameICDE 2009

One of the most challenging aspects of managing a very large data warehouse is identifying how queries will behave before they start executing. Yet knowing their performance characteristics - their runtimes and resource usage - can solve two important problems. First, every database vendor struggles with managing unexpectedly long-running queries. When these long-running queries can be identified before they start, they can be rejected or scheduled when they will not cause extreme resource contention for the other queries in the system. Second, deciding whether a system can complete a given workload in a given time period (or a bigger system is necessary) depends on knowing the resource requirements of the queries in that workload.

We have developed a system that uses machine learning to accurately predict the performance metrics of database queries whose execution times range from milliseconds to hours. For training and testing our system, we used both real customer queries and queries generated from an extended set of TPC-DS templates. The extensions mimic queries that caused customer problems. We used these queries to compare how accurately different techniques predict metrics such as elapsed time, records used, disk I/Os, and message bytes.

The most promising technique was not only the most accurate, but also predicted these metrics simultaneously and using only information available prior to query execution. We validated the accuracy of this machine learning technique on a number of HP Neoview configurations. We were able to predict individual query elapsed time within 20% of its actual time for 85% of the test queries. Most importantly, we were able to correctly identify both the short and long-running (up to two hour) queries to inform workload management and capacity planning.